SUBAK, AN EXTRAORDINARY IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN BALI

Bali is located in Indonesia, which is close to the equator. Since then, Indonesia has a tropical climate. Weather in Bali, as the weather in all parts of Indonesia, only gas two seasons, rainy and dry seasons. Bali weather conditions allow rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. Weather conditions in Bali as it is also allowing Bali gets lots of sun. Coupled with geological conditions Bali has many volcanoes, make Bali a fertile island. So do not be surprised if the Balinese people initially worked as a farmer. To date, the majority of Balinese people are farmers, although Bali is famous for its tourism industry.

Subak temple surrounded by fields
The majority of agricultural land planted with rice in Bali, which require much water. Under such circumstances, needs a good irrigation system. The people of Bali are using Subak irrigation system. Subak is a community organization that specifically regulate rice irrigation systems used in rice cultivation. Subak usually has a temple called Pura Uluncarik, or Pura Bedugul, specially built by the farmers to the goddess of prosperity and fertility, the goddess Sri.

Subak's temple

Subak started in the period of Markandea, a hermit who came from the Java island in the first century of the Saka. Then he, along with his followers, started to open forest and make cultivation fields. Other data said that, in the inscription of King Purana in Klungkung, dated in 994 Saka year (1072), includes the word "kesuwakan" which is now shortened to subak. This farming system ever be simulated with a computer software and proven effective.

Small subak temple (pict: informatika.undiksha.ac.id)
In Subak irrigation management, the Balinese introduces a concept of Tri Hita Karana (THK), which includes three dimensions of life, which is 1. Parahyangan (harmonious relationship between members of the subak with God), 2. Pawongan (harmonious relationship among members), 3. Palemahan (harmonious relationship between members of Subak with the environment).

Subak naming is usually based on: the name of the nearest village, water sources, the closest religious buildings name, time, and how to start planting, and some other naming method. Subak has an aotonomy in arranging their irrigation. Subak required to create and maintain local roads, subak may be associated with the government, deliver programs, counseling and demanding application of latest agricultural technologies. In the social field subak obliged to foster and enhance cooperation among members.

A subaks meeting

In many areas of life, the Balinese know many religious rituals, including agriculture. Religious ceremonies performed from the time the land was prepared until the harvest is stored. Type and time of the ritual is not the same for every subak. There is a ceremony performed by members of the subak in person, but some are together. Implementation of a religious ritual, the people of Bali, is a form of harmonious human relationships with God.

There are some ceremonies, which are: Ngendagin; Pangwiwit; Mapag toya; Nandur; Neduh; Pecaruan; Nyambutin; Biyakukung; Miseh; Ngasaba

Well... that's a bit of an overview of the Balinese people, mostly works as a farmer. At each activity always try to keep a balance between the three components of the relationship of the universe, God, Man and Nature, of course, based on customs that are passed down from generation to generation. I think it is interesting for cultural tourism object.

Subak to be named UNESCO World Heritage Site


No comments:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...